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VARIABLES INFLUENCING SOCCER-SPECIFIC EXERCISE INTENSITY

Rampinini Ermanno, Marcora Samuele M, Castagna Carlo, Abt Grant, Chamari Karim, Sassi Aldo, and Impellizzeri Franco M

During soccer training, it is common to reduce the number of players on a side, and the size of the pitch. These small-sided games are one of the most common exercise modes used by coaches for soccer training. Several variables have been suggested to influence small-sided games intensity including the number of players involved, field dimension, rules and coach encouragement (Bangsbo, 1998; Balsom, 1999; Hoff et al., 2002). However, despite the growing interest for this specific training mode, no studies have investigated the effects of these variables on small-sided games exercise intensity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of number of players, field dimension and coach encouragement, on small sided games intensity. Data were collected on twenty-five amateur soccer players. Specific aerobic interval training, during the competitive season, was performed using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-a-side games in three different field dimensions (small, medium and large), with and without coach encouragement. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE using CR10 scale) and blood lactate ([La-]) were measured. Significant main effects were found for the factors ¡¥number of players¡¦, ¡¥field dimension¡¦, and ¡¥coach encouragement¡¦ (P<0.05), while no interactions were found for any of the investigated variables (P>0.15). The exercise intensity ranged from 83.8 „b 5.0% of HRmax with 3.4 „b 1.0 mmol/l of [La-], and 4.8 „b 0.9 AU (RPE) during 6-a-side without coach encouragement and small field, to 90.9 „b 2.0% of HRmax with 6.5 „b 1.5 mmol/l of [La-], and 8.5 „b 0.4 AU (RPE) during 3-a-side with coach encouragement in a large field. By varying the number of players, from 6-a-side to 3-a-side, the absolute differences were 3.7%, 1.3 mmol/l, and 1.3 AU for % of HRmax, [La-], and RPE, respectively. Coach encouragement increased % of HRmax, [La-] and RPE by 2.2 %, 1.3 mmol/l, and 1.4 AU. Finally, smaller but significant increases were found comparing small to large field dimensions: absolute difference of 1.0 % of HRmax, 0.5 mmol/l of [La-], and 0.5 AU for RPE. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that small-sided games exercise intensity in soccer training can be manipulated by varying the number of soccer players, field dimensions, and the presence or absence of coach encouragement. By using different combination of these factors, coaches can modulate exercise intensity within the high intensity zone and, by doing so, control the aerobic training stimulus.

Communication to 10th European College of Sport Science Congress

MATCH-RELATED FATIGUE IN SOCCER PLAYERS.
MATCH RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN ELITE AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL.
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF JUNIOR CYCLISTS OF DIFFERENT SPECIALTIES AND PERFORMANCE LEVELS.
THE COST OF RUNNING ON NATURAL GRASS AND ARTIFICIAL TURF SURFACES.
TIME COURSE OF THE HEMOGLOBIN MASS RESPONSE TO NATURAL ALTITUDE TRAINING IN ELITE ENDURANCE CYCLISTS.
AEROBIC FITNESS VARIABLES DO NOT PREDICT THE PROFESSIONAL CAREER OF YOUNG CYCLISTS.
PHYSIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF YO-YO INTERMITTENT RECOVERY TEST IN MALE SOCCER PLAYERS
REPEATED-SPRINT ABILITY IN PROFESSIONAL AND AMATEUR SOCCER PLAYERS.
AEROBIC AND EXPLOSIVE POWER PERFORMANCE OF ELITE ITALIAN REGIONAL-LEVEL BASKETBALL PLAYERS.
EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT-ENDURANCE FITNESS ON MATCH PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALE SOCCER PLAYERS.
HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING IN FOOTBALL.
GLYCEMIC INDEX IN SPORT NUTRITION
EFFECTS OF GRADIENT AND SPEED ON FREELY CHOSEN CADENCE: THE KEY ROLE OF CRANK INERTIAL LOAD
EFFECTS OF AEROBIC TRAINING ON THE EXERCISE-INDUCED DECLINE IN SHORT-PASSING ABILITY IN JUNIOR SOCCER PLAYERS.
AGEING AND PHYSICAL MATCH PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE SOCCER REFEREES.
SEASONAL CHANGES IN AEROBIC FITNESS INDICES IN ELITE CYCLISTS.
EFFECT OF MATCH-RELATED FATIGUE ON SHORT-PASSING ABILITY IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS
VALIDITY OF A REPEATED-SPRINT TEST FOR FOOTBALL.
LEVEL GROUND AND UPHILL CYCLING ABILITY IN ELITE FEMALE MOUNTAIN BIKERS AND ROAD CYCLISTS
TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE DURING SOCCER MATCHES OF THE ITALIAN SERIE A LEAGUE: EFFECT OF FATIGUE AND COMPETITIVE LEVEL
EFFECT OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON SAND VERSUS GRASS ON MUSCLE SORENESS AND JUMPING AND SPRINTING ABILITY IN SOCCER PLAYERS.
SPRINT VS. INTERVAL TRAINING IN FOOTBALL.
RELIABILITY OF ISOKINETIC STRENGTH IMBALANCE RATIOS MEASURED USING THE CYBEX NORM DYNAMOMETER
HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE CORRELATES OF PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING SMALL-SIDED SOCCER GAMES
VARIATION IN TOP LEVEL SOCCER MATCH PERFORMANCE.
A VERTICAL JUMP FORCE TEST FOR ASSESSING BILATERAL STRENGTH ASYMMETRY IN
THE YO-YO INTERMITTENT RECOVERY TEST IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS
FACTORS INFLUENCING PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO SMALL-SIDED SOCCER GAMES
VALIDITY OF SIMPLE FIELD TESTS AS INDICATORS OF MATCH-RELATED PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN TOP-LEVEL PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MOUNTAIN BIKING
ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL MATCH PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE SOCCER REFEREES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO FIRST HALF AND PLAYER WORK RATES.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PUSH PHASE AND FINAL RACE TIME IN SKELETON PERFORMANCE
CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES DURING RECREATIONAL 5-A-SIDE INDOOR-SOCCER
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF GENERIC VERSUS SPECIFIC AEROBIC TRAINING IN SOCCER PLAYERS.
PREDICTION OF TIME TO EXHAUSTION FROM BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSE DURING SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE IN COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS.
CARDIORESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO YO-YO INTERMITTENT ENDURANCE TEST IN NONELITE YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS
AEROBIC FITNESS AND YO-YO CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT TESTS PERFORMANCES IN SOCCER PLAYERS: A CORRELATION STUDY.
IS AEROBIC POWER REALLY CRITICAL FOR SUCCESS IN ALPINE SKIING?
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES AND PERFORMANCE IN HIGH LEVEL CROSS COUNTRY OFF ROAD CYCLISTS.
CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO AEROBIC STEP DANCE SESSIONS WITH AND WITHOUT APPENDICULAR OVERLOAD
ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY OF A REPEATED SPRINT ABILITY TEST AND ITS REPRODUCIBILITY IN SOCCER
VARIABLES INFLUENCING SOCCER-SPECIFIC EXERCISE INTENSITY
PHYSIOLOGY OF OFF-ROAD CYCLING
PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF AEROBIC TRAINING IN SOCCER.
PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES TO OFF-ROAD CYCLING PERFORMANCE.
ESTIMATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL POWER-TIME TO EXHAUSTION RELATIONSHIP
THE ENERGY EXPENDITURE OF AN OCCUPATIONAL, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: TILE LAYING
THE ASSESSMENT OF LOWER LIMBS BILATERAL STRENGTH IMBALANCE USING VERTICAL JUMPS ON FORCE PLATFORM
A COMPARISON OF SMALL-SIDED GAMES AND INTERVAL TRAINING
USE OF RPE-BASED TRAINING LOAD IN SOCCER.
RELIABILITY OF HEART RATE RECORDED DURING SOCCER TRAINING
SOCCER PERFORMANCE: RELATIONSHIP WITH OPPONENT
PLASMA ACTH RESPONSE TO EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE IN OVERTRAINED PROFESSIONAL CYCLISTS
MONITORING TRAINING LOAD IN ITALIAN FOOTBALL
MLSS DOES NOT CORRESPOND TO THE MAXIMAL RATE OF LACTATE ELIMINATION
ECONOMY DIFFERENCES AMONG HIGH LEVEL RACE WALKERS
A SIMPLE PREDICTION OF THE EXHAUSTION TIME DURING SUBMAXIMAL CYCLING
VALIDITY OF A SUBMAXIMAL RUNNING TEST TO EVALUATE AEROBIC FITNESS CHANGES IN SOCCER PLAYERS
EXERCISE INTENSITY DURING OFF-CYCLING COMPETITIONS.