home
 Reserved to clients Mapei Sport
OUR SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY
SEARCH
PLASMA ACTH RESPONSE TO EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE IN OVERTRAINED PROFESSIONAL CYCLISTS

Franco M. Impellizzeri, Aldo Sassi

Overtraining (OT) is defined as an imbalance between training stimulus and recovery so that performance is impaired despite continued training. Professional road-cycling is characterized by heavy training load and many days of competitions (from 100 to 120). Therefore, due to high psychological and physiological stress professional cyclists can be considered at high risk of overtraining (OT). Several studies have investigated the physiological and psychological alterations during OT. The aim of this study was to evaluate ACTH and Cortisol responses to exhaustive exercise in OT professional cyclists.
Eleven professional cyclists out of fifty-two were suspected of overtraining (OT) during two seasons due to persistent performance impairment (i.e. incapacity to end competitions) even after a period of rest or tapering. To confirm the OT state athletes had to show 1) an increased of Total Mood Disturbance Indices (TMD) determined from the Profile of Mood States, 2) a decreased time to exhaustion (TE) during a cycling test at an absolute costant workload of 5.4 W·Kg-1 compared to previous test, and 3) the absence of viral infections. Before and 5 min after the cycling test (conducted at 10.00 AM) blood samples were collected and ACTH and Cortisol concentrations were determined. All the athletes were retested when considered out of the OT conditions, corresponding to return to competitions with good performances.
To analyse TMD and TE corresponding to the period before, during and after OT, a one-way ANOVA for repeated measure were used.
The ACTH and Cortisol values during and after OT were analysed using paired t test. Significance was set at P<0.05. Seven cyclists (age 24.3 ± 4.0 yrs, height 177.3 ± 3.2 cm, body mass 68.1 ± 5.1 kg, VO2max 4.832 ± 0.326 l·min-1, % body fat 4.4 ± 1.6, maximum power 432.0 ± 33.1 W) out of eleven were considered OT (four showed viral infections). TE during OT was significantly lower (P<0.01) than before and after OT, whereas TMD was significantly (P<0.01) higher. ACTH and Cortisol concentrations were not different at rest. ACTH response after exhaustive exercise was blunted (P<0.05) whereas the lower Cortisol response was not significant.
The results of this study showed that OT professional cyclists had a diminished ACTH response after an exhaustive exercise as already showed by Urhausen et al. (1998) in OT endurance athletes, and by Odagiri et al. (1996) in “exhausted” triathletes after an ultraendurance event. We fail to detect a difference in the Cortisol response similarly to Odagiri (1996) but differently to Urhausen et al. (1998) who found a tendency to a lower Cortisol response . Failure to show a diminished Cortisol response in this study may be due to a too short sampling period (5 min after exercise).

REFERENCES
Odagiri et al. (1996) Int J Sports Med 17: 325-331Urhausen et al. (1998). Med Sci Sports Exerc 30: 407-414

MATCH-RELATED FATIGUE IN SOCCER PLAYERS.
MATCH RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN ELITE AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL.
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF JUNIOR CYCLISTS OF DIFFERENT SPECIALTIES AND PERFORMANCE LEVELS.
THE COST OF RUNNING ON NATURAL GRASS AND ARTIFICIAL TURF SURFACES.
TIME COURSE OF THE HEMOGLOBIN MASS RESPONSE TO NATURAL ALTITUDE TRAINING IN ELITE ENDURANCE CYCLISTS.
AEROBIC FITNESS VARIABLES DO NOT PREDICT THE PROFESSIONAL CAREER OF YOUNG CYCLISTS.
PHYSIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF YO-YO INTERMITTENT RECOVERY TEST IN MALE SOCCER PLAYERS
REPEATED-SPRINT ABILITY IN PROFESSIONAL AND AMATEUR SOCCER PLAYERS.
AEROBIC AND EXPLOSIVE POWER PERFORMANCE OF ELITE ITALIAN REGIONAL-LEVEL BASKETBALL PLAYERS.
EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT-ENDURANCE FITNESS ON MATCH PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALE SOCCER PLAYERS.
HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING IN FOOTBALL.
GLYCEMIC INDEX IN SPORT NUTRITION
EFFECTS OF GRADIENT AND SPEED ON FREELY CHOSEN CADENCE: THE KEY ROLE OF CRANK INERTIAL LOAD
EFFECTS OF AEROBIC TRAINING ON THE EXERCISE-INDUCED DECLINE IN SHORT-PASSING ABILITY IN JUNIOR SOCCER PLAYERS.
AGEING AND PHYSICAL MATCH PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE SOCCER REFEREES.
SEASONAL CHANGES IN AEROBIC FITNESS INDICES IN ELITE CYCLISTS.
EFFECT OF MATCH-RELATED FATIGUE ON SHORT-PASSING ABILITY IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS
VALIDITY OF A REPEATED-SPRINT TEST FOR FOOTBALL.
LEVEL GROUND AND UPHILL CYCLING ABILITY IN ELITE FEMALE MOUNTAIN BIKERS AND ROAD CYCLISTS
TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE DURING SOCCER MATCHES OF THE ITALIAN SERIE A LEAGUE: EFFECT OF FATIGUE AND COMPETITIVE LEVEL
EFFECT OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON SAND VERSUS GRASS ON MUSCLE SORENESS AND JUMPING AND SPRINTING ABILITY IN SOCCER PLAYERS.
SPRINT VS. INTERVAL TRAINING IN FOOTBALL.
RELIABILITY OF ISOKINETIC STRENGTH IMBALANCE RATIOS MEASURED USING THE CYBEX NORM DYNAMOMETER
HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE CORRELATES OF PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING SMALL-SIDED SOCCER GAMES
VARIATION IN TOP LEVEL SOCCER MATCH PERFORMANCE.
A VERTICAL JUMP FORCE TEST FOR ASSESSING BILATERAL STRENGTH ASYMMETRY IN
THE YO-YO INTERMITTENT RECOVERY TEST IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS
FACTORS INFLUENCING PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO SMALL-SIDED SOCCER GAMES
VALIDITY OF SIMPLE FIELD TESTS AS INDICATORS OF MATCH-RELATED PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN TOP-LEVEL PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MOUNTAIN BIKING
ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL MATCH PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE SOCCER REFEREES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO FIRST HALF AND PLAYER WORK RATES.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PUSH PHASE AND FINAL RACE TIME IN SKELETON PERFORMANCE
CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES DURING RECREATIONAL 5-A-SIDE INDOOR-SOCCER
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF GENERIC VERSUS SPECIFIC AEROBIC TRAINING IN SOCCER PLAYERS.
PREDICTION OF TIME TO EXHAUSTION FROM BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSE DURING SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE IN COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS.
CARDIORESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO YO-YO INTERMITTENT ENDURANCE TEST IN NONELITE YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS
AEROBIC FITNESS AND YO-YO CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT TESTS PERFORMANCES IN SOCCER PLAYERS: A CORRELATION STUDY.
IS AEROBIC POWER REALLY CRITICAL FOR SUCCESS IN ALPINE SKIING?
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES AND PERFORMANCE IN HIGH LEVEL CROSS COUNTRY OFF ROAD CYCLISTS.
CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO AEROBIC STEP DANCE SESSIONS WITH AND WITHOUT APPENDICULAR OVERLOAD
ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY OF A REPEATED SPRINT ABILITY TEST AND ITS REPRODUCIBILITY IN SOCCER
VARIABLES INFLUENCING SOCCER-SPECIFIC EXERCISE INTENSITY
PHYSIOLOGY OF OFF-ROAD CYCLING
PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF AEROBIC TRAINING IN SOCCER.
PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES TO OFF-ROAD CYCLING PERFORMANCE.
ESTIMATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL POWER-TIME TO EXHAUSTION RELATIONSHIP
THE ENERGY EXPENDITURE OF AN OCCUPATIONAL, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: TILE LAYING
THE ASSESSMENT OF LOWER LIMBS BILATERAL STRENGTH IMBALANCE USING VERTICAL JUMPS ON FORCE PLATFORM
A COMPARISON OF SMALL-SIDED GAMES AND INTERVAL TRAINING
USE OF RPE-BASED TRAINING LOAD IN SOCCER.
RELIABILITY OF HEART RATE RECORDED DURING SOCCER TRAINING
SOCCER PERFORMANCE: RELATIONSHIP WITH OPPONENT
PLASMA ACTH RESPONSE TO EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE IN OVERTRAINED PROFESSIONAL CYCLISTS
MONITORING TRAINING LOAD IN ITALIAN FOOTBALL
MLSS DOES NOT CORRESPOND TO THE MAXIMAL RATE OF LACTATE ELIMINATION
ECONOMY DIFFERENCES AMONG HIGH LEVEL RACE WALKERS
A SIMPLE PREDICTION OF THE EXHAUSTION TIME DURING SUBMAXIMAL CYCLING
VALIDITY OF A SUBMAXIMAL RUNNING TEST TO EVALUATE AEROBIC FITNESS CHANGES IN SOCCER PLAYERS
EXERCISE INTENSITY DURING OFF-CYCLING COMPETITIONS.