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A SIMPLE PREDICTION OF THE EXHAUSTION TIME DURING SUBMAXIMAL CYCLING
Sassi A., Morelli A., Impellizzeri F., Ruffini G., Mognoni P.

Il tempo di esaurimento (TE) durante uno sforzo massimale viene comunemente utilizzato per valutare gli atleti di endurance. La variabilità di misurazioni ripetute del TE è molto ampia (McLellan et al., 1995) ma, al contrario, la capacità di effettuare un certo lavoro nel minor tempo possibile, che è in qualche modo una variabile simile, ha un coefficiente di variazione di solo 1% (Hickey et al., 1992). Tuttavia, l’alta variabilità Del TE può essere accettabile se i cambiamenti del TE durante la stagione agonistica risultassero essere grandi. La disponibilità, inoltre, da parte dell’atleta verso questo tipo di test è solitamente bassa. Il TE, tuttavia, sembra poter essere predetto prima che venga raggiunto.
Il TE è stato misurato in 11 soggetti (età 25 ± 7.5 anni, altezza 179.5 ± 7.3 cm, peso 71.1 ± 6.4 kg, VO2max 66.6 ± 13.0 ml·min-1·kg-1 ) durante test submassimali al cicloergometro effettuati a vari dispendi energetici, corrispon-denti al 82.6 ± 8.9% del VO2max. Una correlazione negativa e significativa (p=0.02) fu trovata tra TE (29.3 ± 26.4 min) e percentuale del VO2max. La end tidal PCO2, la ventilazione ed il lattato capillare risultarono strettamente cor-relati e cambiarono linearmente con il tempo. Il logaritmo del loro grado di cambiamento risultò strettamente correlato al logaritmo del TE (p<0.001).
In un secondo gruppo di 8 ciclisti professionisti (età 27.4 ± 3.5 anni, altezza 181.6 ± 6.3 cm, peso 75.2 ± 7.2 kg, VO2max 77.6 ± 4.9 ml·min-1·kg-1 ) le stesse variabili utilizzate nella prima parte dello studio sono state misurate ad una potenza meccanica corrispondente a 5.3 W·kg-1 di peso corporeo, con un tempo target di 15 minuti. Queste varia-bili fisiologiche sono state utilizzate per predire il TE. Le misurazioni furono ripetute tre volte: inizio dicembre (pri-ma dell’allenamento invernale), alla fine della preparazione invernale e durante le prime due settimane della stagione competitive. Un’analisi non-parametrica della varianza per misure ripetute mostrò una differenza significativa tra la prima e la terza sessione di test. La sensibilità delle altre variabili fisiologiche risultò essere simile.
In conclusione, semplici variabili fisiologiche misurate durante sforzi impegnativi ma sottomassimali prima dell’arrivo dell’esaurimento stesso, potrebbero esser utili per valutare la condizione di allenamento negli atleti di en-durance. La relazione tra queste variabili ed la capacità prestativa necessita ulteriori approfondimenti.

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