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ECONOMY DIFFERENCES AMONG HIGH LEVEL RACE WALKERS
F. M. Impellizzeri, E. Arcelli, E. Rampinini, A. La Torre, M. Faina, A. Morelli and A. Sassi

Diversi studi hanno analizzato le determinanti fisiologiche della prestazione in marciatori di medio e basso livello. Ad esempio, Hagberg e Coyle (1983) studiarono 8 marciatori maschi con un tempo medio sulla 20 km di 112 ± 6 min trovando una correlazione significativa tra la velocità di gara durante la 20 km e l’ossigeno consumato (VO2) alla soglia lattacida (LT), con la velocità alla LT, e con l’economia a 10 km·h-1. Risultati simili furono trovati da Yoshida et al. (1989) in 8 marciatrici donne con una velocità media durante la 5 km che andava da 168.6 a 212.9 m·min-1. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato confrontare le caratteristiche fisiologiche di un gruppo di marciatori maschi e femmine di livello più alto rispetto agli studi precedenti, dividendoli in due sottogruppi di diverse capacità prestative.
Dieci marciatori agonisti uomini (media ± SD: età 24.8 ± 4.2 anni, peso 64.4 ± 7.0 kg, altezza 175.9 ± 3.8 cm) e otto femmine (media ± SD: età 22.6 ± 6.1 anni, peso 51.4 ± 6.1 kg, altezza 165.3 ± 7.2 cm) di livello nazionale ed internazionale hanno partecipato a questo studio. Essi effettuarono un test incrementale al treadmill partendo da 5 km·h-1 ed aumentando la velocità di 2 km·h-1 ogni 8 min fino a 15 km·h-1, dato che per velocità superiori non era garantita la corretta tecnica di marcia. Durante il test, i gas respiratori sono stati misurati utilizzando un sistema di analisi di gas automatico a circuito aperto. Da questi dati, l’economia ad ogni velocità è stata calcolata usando la formula di Di Prampero: [(VO2-VO2riposo)v-1]60. Campioni di sangue capillare sono stati prelevati alla fine di ogni step ed immediatamente analizzati con tecnica elettroenzimatica. Dai dati di lattato è stata calcolata la LT come proposto da Hagberg and Coyle (1983) e la soglia lattacida alle 4 mmol (OBLA). I marciatori sono stati divisi, in funzione del loro miglior tempo ottenuto nei due mesi successivi alla sessione di test (tempo medio sulla 20 km di 86.8 ± 4.7 min per i maschi e tempo sulla 10 km di 48.2 ± 3.8 min per le femmine), in due sottogruppi definiti “Best”(migliori 5 maschi e 4 femmine) e “Worst” (peggiori 5 maschi e 4 femmine). Per confrontare i dati dei due gruppi è stato utilizzato il test-t di Student.
Tra i due gruppi non sono state trovate differenze significative tra la velocità ed il VO2 alla LT e OBLA. Differenze significative, invece, sono state trovate nell’economia di marcia alle velocità di 9, 11, 13 km·h-1 (P<0.01) e a 15 km·h-1 (P<0.05).

I risultati di questo studio hanno evidenziato come in un gruppo di marciatori di alto livello con valori di soglia (LT e OBLA) simili, il fattore determinante per la prestazione sia l’economia. Questo conferma ed è quindi in accordo con le conclusioni di Hagberg & Coyle (1983) che mostrarono come anche in atleti di più basso livello con LT simile, le differenze nella performance erano determinate dall’economia alle velocità sottomassimali.

BIBLIOGRAFIA
Hagberg & Coyle (1983). Med Sci Sports Exerc 15: 287-289
Yoshida et al. (1989). Br J Sports Med 23: 250-254
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MATCH RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN ELITE AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL.
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF JUNIOR CYCLISTS OF DIFFERENT SPECIALTIES AND PERFORMANCE LEVELS.
THE COST OF RUNNING ON NATURAL GRASS AND ARTIFICIAL TURF SURFACES.
TIME COURSE OF THE HEMOGLOBIN MASS RESPONSE TO NATURAL ALTITUDE TRAINING IN ELITE ENDURANCE CYCLISTS.
AEROBIC FITNESS VARIABLES DO NOT PREDICT THE PROFESSIONAL CAREER OF YOUNG CYCLISTS.
PHYSIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF YO-YO INTERMITTENT RECOVERY TEST IN MALE SOCCER PLAYERS
REPEATED-SPRINT ABILITY IN PROFESSIONAL AND AMATEUR SOCCER PLAYERS.
AEROBIC AND EXPLOSIVE POWER PERFORMANCE OF ELITE ITALIAN REGIONAL-LEVEL BASKETBALL PLAYERS.
EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT-ENDURANCE FITNESS ON MATCH PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALE SOCCER PLAYERS.
HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING IN FOOTBALL.
GLYCEMIC INDEX IN SPORT NUTRITION
EFFECTS OF GRADIENT AND SPEED ON FREELY CHOSEN CADENCE: THE KEY ROLE OF CRANK INERTIAL LOAD
EFFECTS OF AEROBIC TRAINING ON THE EXERCISE-INDUCED DECLINE IN SHORT-PASSING ABILITY IN JUNIOR SOCCER PLAYERS.
AGEING AND PHYSICAL MATCH PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE SOCCER REFEREES.
SEASONAL CHANGES IN AEROBIC FITNESS INDICES IN ELITE CYCLISTS.
EFFECT OF MATCH-RELATED FATIGUE ON SHORT-PASSING ABILITY IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS
VALIDITY OF A REPEATED-SPRINT TEST FOR FOOTBALL.
LEVEL GROUND AND UPHILL CYCLING ABILITY IN ELITE FEMALE MOUNTAIN BIKERS AND ROAD CYCLISTS
TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE DURING SOCCER MATCHES OF THE ITALIAN SERIE A LEAGUE: EFFECT OF FATIGUE AND COMPETITIVE LEVEL
EFFECT OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON SAND VERSUS GRASS ON MUSCLE SORENESS AND JUMPING AND SPRINTING ABILITY IN SOCCER PLAYERS.
SPRINT VS. INTERVAL TRAINING IN FOOTBALL.
RELIABILITY OF ISOKINETIC STRENGTH IMBALANCE RATIOS MEASURED USING THE CYBEX NORM DYNAMOMETER
HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE CORRELATES OF PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING SMALL-SIDED SOCCER GAMES
VARIATION IN TOP LEVEL SOCCER MATCH PERFORMANCE.
A VERTICAL JUMP FORCE TEST FOR ASSESSING BILATERAL STRENGTH ASYMMETRY IN
THE YO-YO INTERMITTENT RECOVERY TEST IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS
FACTORS INFLUENCING PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO SMALL-SIDED SOCCER GAMES
VALIDITY OF SIMPLE FIELD TESTS AS INDICATORS OF MATCH-RELATED PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN TOP-LEVEL PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MOUNTAIN BIKING
ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL MATCH PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE SOCCER REFEREES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO FIRST HALF AND PLAYER WORK RATES.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PUSH PHASE AND FINAL RACE TIME IN SKELETON PERFORMANCE
CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES DURING RECREATIONAL 5-A-SIDE INDOOR-SOCCER
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF GENERIC VERSUS SPECIFIC AEROBIC TRAINING IN SOCCER PLAYERS.
PREDICTION OF TIME TO EXHAUSTION FROM BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSE DURING SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE IN COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS.
CARDIORESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO YO-YO INTERMITTENT ENDURANCE TEST IN NONELITE YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS
AEROBIC FITNESS AND YO-YO CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT TESTS PERFORMANCES IN SOCCER PLAYERS: A CORRELATION STUDY.
IS AEROBIC POWER REALLY CRITICAL FOR SUCCESS IN ALPINE SKIING?
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES AND PERFORMANCE IN HIGH LEVEL CROSS COUNTRY OFF ROAD CYCLISTS.
CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO AEROBIC STEP DANCE SESSIONS WITH AND WITHOUT APPENDICULAR OVERLOAD
ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY OF A REPEATED SPRINT ABILITY TEST AND ITS REPRODUCIBILITY IN SOCCER
VARIABLES INFLUENCING SOCCER-SPECIFIC EXERCISE INTENSITY
PHYSIOLOGY OF OFF-ROAD CYCLING
PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF AEROBIC TRAINING IN SOCCER.
PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES TO OFF-ROAD CYCLING PERFORMANCE.
ESTIMATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL POWER-TIME TO EXHAUSTION RELATIONSHIP
THE ENERGY EXPENDITURE OF AN OCCUPATIONAL, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: TILE LAYING
THE ASSESSMENT OF LOWER LIMBS BILATERAL STRENGTH IMBALANCE USING VERTICAL JUMPS ON FORCE PLATFORM
A COMPARISON OF SMALL-SIDED GAMES AND INTERVAL TRAINING
USE OF RPE-BASED TRAINING LOAD IN SOCCER.
RELIABILITY OF HEART RATE RECORDED DURING SOCCER TRAINING
SOCCER PERFORMANCE: RELATIONSHIP WITH OPPONENT
PLASMA ACTH RESPONSE TO EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE IN OVERTRAINED PROFESSIONAL CYCLISTS
MONITORING TRAINING LOAD IN ITALIAN FOOTBALL
MLSS DOES NOT CORRESPOND TO THE MAXIMAL RATE OF LACTATE ELIMINATION
ECONOMY DIFFERENCES AMONG HIGH LEVEL RACE WALKERS
A SIMPLE PREDICTION OF THE EXHAUSTION TIME DURING SUBMAXIMAL CYCLING
VALIDITY OF A SUBMAXIMAL RUNNING TEST TO EVALUATE AEROBIC FITNESS CHANGES IN SOCCER PLAYERS
EXERCISE INTENSITY DURING OFF-CYCLING COMPETITIONS.